I can’t forget Carol Gilligan from the 1970s:

“Women often feel alienated in academic settings and experience ‘formal’ education as either peripheral or irrelevant to their central interests and development. . . . In everyday and professional life, as well as in the classroom, women often feel unheard even when they believe that they have something important to say. Most women can recall incidents in which either they or female friends were discouraged from pursuing some line of intellectual work on the grounds that it was ‘unfeminine’ or incompatible with female capabilities. Many female students and working women are painfully aware that men succeed better than they in getting and holding the attention of others for their ideas and opinions. All women grow up having to deal with historically and culturally engrained definitions of femininity and womanhood–one common theme being that women, like children, should be seen and not heard.” (4-5).

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